Two engine approaches, one using aftertreatment technologies and the other LNG as a fuel, will help inland waterway vessels meet strict European emissions standards
Europe is tightening emissions regulations on high-speed, four-stroke engines used on inland waterway vessels, passenger vessels and work boats. Regulated under the EU’s Stage V emissions standards, these engines range from the relatively small – those rated at 37 kW or less used for propulsion – to the much larger 560 kW and above, used for propulsion or auxiliary power.
In 2021, Cummins will launch its X15 Stage V diesel engine solution for inland waterway vessels. More than two years ago at SMM 2018, Cummins had unveiled the X15 diesel to meet US EPA Tier 3 regulations and IMO Tier II standards. This new Stage V-certified engine – offered in a power range from 373 to 447 kW – can be used for main propulsion, powering bow thrusters or similar applications. The new regulations require additional complexity, making it necessary to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology to meet the stricter NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission levels.
Cummins, however, has tried to reduce the footprint of these technologies.
“Compared to diesel-powered vessels, these tankers will emit about 25% less CO2, 80% less PM and 70% less NOx”
“Cummins’ X15 Stage V solution is an integrated engine and aftertreatment package designed and developed in-house,” said Cummins director of European marine sales Cedric Merveillaud. “This delivers the optimum balance of performance and efficiency, adhering to the latest emissions standards.”
Europe’s most stringent emissions regulations yet, Stage V standards set NOx levels at 0.4 g/kW-hr and PM emissions at 0.015 g/kW-hr, and with the addition of a new particulate number (PN) count, virtually eliminates 99.9% of PM.
Cummins’ exhaust aftertreatment system includes a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), DPF and SCR technology in a two-piece unit, designed to fit compactly into the engine compartment.
A Cummins XPI fuel system delivers a precise quantity of fuel at ultra-high pressures. By employing electronic engine controls, Cummins enables flexibility in injection timing to maximise fuel economy while minimising exhaust emissions.
Natural gas engines for inland tankers
Forty chemical inland waterway tankers under construction at Concordia Damen will be equipped with a total of 120 Stage V-certified generator set engines to meet strict emissions standards.
Under charter to Shell, these 110-m chemical inland tankers will transport mineral oils between Antwerp, Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the Rhine network.
Each Parsifal-class tanker will have an overall length of 110 m, beam of 11.45 m and depth of 5.05 m. Each LNG-powered tanker will have eight cargo tanks with a total capacity of 3,040 m3 and be supplied by two MAN Rollo marine generator sets driven by V12 E3262 LE 201 lean-burn gas engines, each rated at 495 kW at 1,800 rpm. A third marine auxiliary generator set, fuelled by MGO, will produce 350 kW at 1,800 rpm. Compared to diesel-powered vessels, these tankers will emit about 25% less CO2, 80% less PM and 70% less NOx.
MAN Rollo, part of leading Dutch mobility company Pon, is the international importer of the MAN brand in nine countries in Europe, supplying engines, energy systems, parts and services for coastal vessels, inland vessels, workboats and yachts.
Cryonorm will supply LNG fuel systems with 60 m3 tanks for each eco-friendly vessel under a contract with Concordia Damen.
“Inland navigation plays an important role in the delivery of Shell’s products in Europe,” said Shell freight trading manager Martin van Veen. “By using ships that can [transport] products even with low water, we can keep our service level high. Combined with the use of a less polluting fuel, this gives us a nice position on European inland waterways,” added Mr van Veen in a statement on social media.
MAN Rollo marine account manager Karel Schuurman, said: “MAN Rollo prioritises sustainable innovation and leads the industry in the development of LNG generator sets for the maritime market. These Stage V-certified LNG generator sets are a natural continuation of our previous work. It’s a tough challenge to meet Stage V standards with engines over 300 kW.”
Under the contract with Concordia Damen, MAN Rollo will supply 80 MAN Rollo LNG generator sets with 495 kW output each, and 40 MAN Rollo diesel generator sets with 277 kW output. Construction of the first tanker will begin In January, with delivery scheduled for Q4 2021. Subsequent ships will be delivered every month thereafter.
The order is a major boost to the use of LNG as a fuel by inland waterway shipping. As Mr Schuurman noted: “The magnitude of this order will significantly increase the percentage of LNG in this sector, which is a positive development.” Besides achieving Stage V compliance, Mr Schuurman said the engines have already proven their qualities as IMO Tier III-certified engines in other maritime markets. Additionally, besides the LNG-fuelled engines that meet Stage V regulations, he added, MAN Rollo offers diesel-based engines over 300 kW with Stage V certification.
Packing more four-stroke power into the same footprint
At Norshipping 2015, Wärtsilä rolled out its Wärtsilä 31 engine – recognised at the time as the world’s most efficient four-stroke diesel engine by Guinness World Records for its fuel-sipping qualities.
Aligning with the flexible fuel future, Wärtsilä’s dual-fuel version of the model is being upgraded to increase its power output in the same physical footprint.
At the same time, says Wärtsilä, it is improving the engine’s exhaust gas emissions credentials.
The fuel-flexible DF version that is capable of burning natural gas, marine light fuel oil, as well as heavy fuel oil has proven to be increasingly popular for installation on a broad range of vessel types, including cruise ships, ferries, tankers and fishing vessels.
The power upgrade will result in the current output range of 4.2 to 11 MW being increased to a range of 4.6 to 12 MW, with 600 kW/cylinder at 750 rpm, and 580 kW/cylinder at 720 rpm. The new development also lowers the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a point where a typical ferry can reduce its emissions by as much as 750 tonnes per year, says the engine designer.
“Getting more power from an engine that already delivers exceptional efficiency, low emissions, and fuel flexibility is a real benefit,” says Wärtsilä Marine general manager, product management, small and medium bore Janne Klemola. Mr Klemola says the “upgrade with fewer cylinders lowers the lifecycle costs, while at the same time reducing both the installation and maintenance costs.”
Since its introduction, more than 100 Wärtsilä 31 engines have been sold, and in excess of 60,000 field operating hours have been accumulated.
Available in 8- to 16-cylinder models, the Wärtsilä 31DF has a power output ranging from 4.6 to 9.6 MW, at 720 and 750 rpm.