A project to develop carbon capture and storage on the Norwegian coast has begun investigating liquid CO2 carrier designs using a variety of fuelling options.
The project, run by Norwegian energy company Equinor in partnership with Total and Shell, will capture CO2 from onshore industrial facilities in Norway and transport it by ship to a receiving plant on the west coast. From there it will be sent through pipelines to injection wells on the Norwegian continental shelf.
Naval architect Deltamarin will support the energy majors in designing the liquid CO2 (LCO2) vessel and environmental optimisation. The design study includes an evaluation of technologies used to increase the energy efficiency and improve the environmental footprint of LCO2 carrier.
Deltamarin said that several technologies including carbon capture, fuel cells and zero-emission and low-carbon fuels would all be considered using the company’s simulation modelling.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been proposed as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels by trapping harmful emissions and storing them – in this case, piping CO2 into seabed reservoirs 1,000-2,000 m below sea level. To date there is no viable portable means of capturing CO2, as would be needed for on-board emission reduction.
Shipping of liquefied CO2 already occurs in small volumes to serve the industrial gases market, but a wider role has long been suggested in carbon capture and storage. In 2011 a study by a consortium including shipowner Anthony Veder and ship designer Ulstein proposed a 30,000-m3 capacity vessel that could also carry LPG.
The unusual ship concept featured three engine rooms, each with two four-stroke engines. But initially the ship would have only four engines. Two further engines were to be installed later, when the injection pressures needed to pump CO2 into the seabed were expected to rise, requiring more power.