Enhancing the role of the shipping line within the development of the ISO 19030 standard is crucial, as the coatings industry continues its drive to boost performance efficiency
Movements to update the ISO 19030 standard have already started – and the aim is to increase the role of the shipping operator in this.
Jotun A/S global concept director, hull performance solutions Stein Kjølberg tells Container Shipping & Trade: “There is talk about the next update to the standard, but a consensus has not yet been reached about who should be part of the group behind this. Some of this will probably be further discussed at HullPIC in March next year.”
Jotun’s and DNV GL’s annual ISO Standard 19030 HullPIC (Hull Performance & Insight conferences) includes stakeholders from across the industry. They highlight developments, challenges and advances that could help to further improve vessel performance, and look at the role of the standard and how it can be developed.
Mr Kjølberg adds that “Jotun was the project leader the first time, but we believe for this to move forward in the right manner it should be someone from the operational side [shipowner or operator] who should take ownership within the industry group. Since we got a little bit involved in early talks, we have not seen anyone step up to take that role – so it is still pending.”
Explaining why a ship operator should take the lead, he says: “The consensus is that it is important to have the operator side taking the lead as it is meant to benefit them and there are still too few who have adopted it, when many more should take an interest. Part of this is that it is seen as a standard based on how frequently the data is produced.
“If you look at today’s market, my personal guess is that 15% of the world fleet have the equipment for high-frequency performance monitoring (ISO 19030-2) installed. The rest are still relying on alternative ways according to ISO 19030-3.”
Not 100% – but fine
Mr Kjølberg adds that “the standard is not up to 100%, but that is fine – that was never the intention. But it is good enough for use as a starting point, and there is willingness in the market to develop this further.”
A potential area of development he singles out is adapting the standard to cover vessels with a double (variable) pitch propeller. Currently, it just covers single pitch propellers. Mr Kjølberg explains: “This could be one thing that is added in because you have vessels with variable pitch propellers, which are not factored into the standard. We come across customers in meetings who bring this up. There are always ways to address this, but it would be better to have this covered in the standard itself as it would make the measurements more accurate.”
The ISO standard could perhaps tie into other measurements. Mr Kjølberg says: “The standard is only about the hull and propeller, and this is only a part of fuel costs. If it were possible to break down the engine train into separate parts you could pinpoint data exactly – for example, 10% of fuel costs come from hull and propeller performance – but there are uncertainties on the rest. This is something for the industry to look at.”
Despite the desire to encourage more shipowners to use the standard, the container ship industry is at the forefront of its use. Mr Kjølberg comments: “My opinion is that the container industry benefits the most from this, as they have a fixed schedule and not much leeway for slow steaming. So this industry should be an easy one to monitor, and you don’t have so much uncertainty. Some large operators have a good approach to new data for the whole fleet and so can get very good feedback, but some lack the ability to go deep down and see what is affecting this data.
“If you have 300 to 400 vessels, to start investment in equipment now would be costly – even though it is not much per ship. But being involved in the standard will help ship operators. It will be easier for them to incorporate it as part of a newbuild programme, as this is when the cost is peanuts.”
Container ships make up over 40% of contracts with Jotun Hull Performance Solutions. “There is big interest in efficiency and performance. If they don’t buy [superior products] from us, they buy superior products from competitors, so there is a trend across the board to buy better products,” Mr Kjølberg says.
PPG is also involved in the trend to use data within the coatings industry. PPG global platform director, marine coatings Tom Molenda tells Container Shipping & Trade: “Similar to other leading industries, the maritime industry is quickly moving forward with processes to incorporate more data analytics into decision-making processes. For example, such analysis can provide better insights into vessel/hull conditions and appropriate action steps.”
PPG and DNV GL: coatings study
PPG is participating in this area and recently announced results from a study that concluded vessels using its fouling release and antifouling coatings show improved speed and power performance. It conducted the study in collaboration with class society DNV GL. Mr Molenda says: “PPG selected DNV GL to partner in the study due to the accuracy of the company’s vessel-performance analysis methodology, which is more rigorous than the ISO 19030 standard for measuring changes in hull and propeller performance. DNV GL’s testing procedures introduce advanced filtering and normalisation methods that increase the usability of data and yield more accurate results.”
The study used the hull performance analysis methodology developed by DNV GL to analyse the performance of various major vessel types that use PPG antifouling and fouling release solutions in a variety of operating conditions.
Mr Molenda reveals that “the results demonstrate noteworthy hull performance, with less than 1.5% average speed loss across the variety of ship types and operational conditions. In addition, vessels using PPG SIGMAGLIDE 1290 fouling release coating demonstrated notable speed and power improvement over the baseline sea-trial conditions. This study provides additional confirmation that PPG fouling control products contribute to improved vessel performance.”
DNV GL presented the study’s results at the fourth annual Hull Performance and Insight Conference (HullPIC) in Gubbio, Italy.
The demand for more efficient coatings is part of an ever-increasing focus on operational efficiency. Mr Molenda says: “The shipping industry has responded to demands for improved environmental performance with a number of voluntary initiatives to speed up the development of more efficient ways of operating vessels, and coatings have their part to play in this process. Over the last 10 years, the improvements in overall fleet efficiency and reduced environmental impact have been noteworthy accomplishments.”
Going forward, he says, shipping will continue to focus on both operational efficiency and a holistic improvement of environmental performance. Mr Molenda adds that “a combination of voluntary actions, global regulations, and market instruments will result in owners progressively reducing their environmental footprint as a function of their everyday business.”
He comments that the data that will drive the new regulations is already being collected and although the IMO 2030 and 2050 targets are not law yet, shipowners are already taking many positive steps.
Mr Molenda says: “Shipowners will increasingly supplement their efforts to increase the efficiency of their vessel operations for commercial reasons with a co-ordinated process of reducing fuel consumption across their fleets.”
PPG anticipated the trends of increased efficiency and growing environmental awareness, and in response engineered its most advanced pure silicone fouling release system: PPG SIGMAGLIDE 1290. This coating is formulated to help owners increase performance and at the same time greatly enhance the environmental aspects – while delivering a coating that is free from biocides.
PPG SIGMAGLIDE 1290 is a fourth-generation, silicone fouling release coating. Mr Molenda explains: “It is unaffected by legislation such as the Biocidal Products Directive and it is tailored to comply with future environmental compliance programmes.
“Its low environmental impact means that it can be applied onto the hull of a vessel trading in the most ecologically sensitive environments. Superior performance is achieved through a combination of film-forming properties and a very low average hull roughness, which result in market-leading performance.”
PPG SIGMAGLIDE 1290 uses dynamic surface regeneration technology to eliminate slime problems and significantly increase performance when compared with existing fouling release products. These properties allow water to act as a catalyst to lower the surface energy of the coating back to its original state and restart its its surface configuration properties.
Additionally, Mr Molenda says PPG has found good market acceptance for PPG SIGMA SAILADVANCE. The range includes SAILADVANCE RX and GX, two formulations based on PPG’s own patented technologies. These antifoulings are based on self-release binder technology using controlled surface active polymers (CSPs) that provide a self-lubrication and self-release mechanism to the coating.
CSP acts on the coating/water interface as a lubricant, which supports laminar flow, thereby lowering the hull friction when the ship is sailing. In addition, CSPs create a ‘slippery surface’ that increases the resistance to fouling when the ship is not sailing, allowing for longer idle times.
Mr Molenda says: “The PPG SIGMA SAILADVANCE range is well designed for container vessel types and operating conditions, and is effective for slower steaming because of the engineered CSP composition. The antifoulings also benefit from high-volume solids for efficient application and evolve in a pattern of linear polishing, with consistent biocide release for predictable performance for up to 90 months.”
Advanced anti-biofouling properties
Meanwhile, Hempel launched a new coating system incorporating advanced anti-biofouling properties at Nor-Shipping this year. Hempaguard MaX is applied in three layers, meaning it can be applied more quickly, reducing time in drydock by up to two days.
The combined savings generated by Hempaguard MaX through reduced time in drydock and increased fuel savings could pay back the cost of the coating within three months, based on a VLCC with an activity level of 70% and burning low-sulphur fuel costing 35% more than standard bunker fuel over a five-year lifecycle. Hempaguard MaX system delivers an annual saving of around US$1.8M compared with a market average antifouling. This equates to a return on investment of three months.
Hempel’s head of marine group product management Davide Ippolito said: “The high level of fuel savings and hull protection are achieved due to the low average hull roughness level delivered by the whole coating system, very low speed loss over the entire operational period and improved anticorrosive capabilities.
“Hempaguard MaX is the next logical step for shipowners and operators seeking to maximise their efficiency and reduce associated CO2 emissions. At a time where marginal gains are of importance and environmental regulations are becoming stricter, the choice of hull coating can make a significant difference.”
Hempel’s new system builds on the success of its flagship hull coating, Hempaguard X7. Since its launch in 2013, this coating has been applied to over 1,500 vessels. According to Hempel, this has allowed those owners to collectively reduce their annual bunker bill by US$500M and reduce their CO2 emissions by over 10M tonnes.
Hempaguard MaX exploits the synergies between its three different layers: Hempaprime Immerse 900, tie-coat Nexus II, and Hempaguard X8.
The top-coat Hempaguard X8 is built on Hempel’s enhanced patented Actiguard technology. This unique coating combines the smoothness of a silicone coating with an improved hydrogel microlayer and active ingredient to provide outstanding antifouling performance, full operational flexibility and smooth hull.
Hempaprime Immerse 900 and Nexus II contribute significantly to Hempaguard MaX’s low AHR. A smoother hull delivers less drag and improved fuel efficiency from day one.
Hempaprime Immerse 900 is an anticorrosive primer that can be applied in one coat, while Nexus II is a next-generation tie-coat technology with improved anticorrosive capabilities. Together, they provide the same protection delivered by two standard maintenance epoxy coats, reduce time in the dock for faster return to service and ultimately save money for the shipowner and operators.
The new three-coat Hempaguard MaX system can be used with Hempel’s System for Hull and Propeller Efficiency fuel-efficiency management software suite, which is available to commercial shipowners and operators.
Barnacles: a regulatory focus
Protecting ship hulls from barnacle settlement has become an ever more dominant issue in recent years, especially as there is a heavier regulatory focus on this issue.
Sweden-headquartered I-Tech’s barnacle-repellent, organic, non-metal antifouling coating active agent Selektope is being used in several marine coatings including Chugoku Marine Paints’ (CMP) premium product Seaflo Neo CF Premium, which is being increasingly used by the container ship sector.
I-Tech chief executive Philip Chaabane tells Container Shipping & Trade: “Container ships have a relatively high speed and less idling than a traditional oil tanker, therefore, at first, we were not convinced that the container industry was a fit for this technology. However, with the engineering powers of paint makers, different ways were found to tailor coatings that offer container ships enhanced protection against barnacle fouling, at any time when they might be at anchor.”
Speaking about the benefits of the use of CMP’s Seaflo Neo CF Premium, he says: “CMP has taken out all the copper and replaced it with Selektope and their own advanced technology to come up with a much smoother surface with overall better performance and excellent colour retention. Selektope has enabled new ways of thinking for the paint makers and this is used on container ships with great effect.
“It is about saving emissions and saving fuel, and the smoother the hull the better the performance – reducing excessive use of fuel and emissions to air. This advanced antifouling technology is delivering exactly that on container ships.”
Having been launched in 2016, CMP has brought eight products to market that include Selektope, including in Sea Premier 3000 Plus, which was announced at the Bari Ship expo in Imabari, Japan, earlier this year. This product can be used to protect niche areas of a ship from barnacle fouling.
Mr Chaabane says: “It is an issue for all ships: protecting marine ecosystems from invasive species and reducing emissions to air.”
He speaks of the “increasing importance” of this topic, as people are aware that hulls contribute to spreading invasive aquatic species. Mr Chaabane continues: “Before, regulatory authorities just considered ballast water. Now that is solved, they understand that the hull has its contribution as a vector of invasive species too. In some countries there are guidelines, and regulations are almost in place in Australia and New Zealand. There have been incidents of vessels being refused entry at certain ports.
Niche areas of container ships – the bow thruster tunnels and water inlet areas, for example – can also be big problem areas for barnacle fouling. Selektope can be used to prevent barnacles colonising niche areas: it is the solution needed.”
Speaking about the growing need to protect against barnacle repellent sustainably, Mr Chabaane says: “The container sector is interested in investing in coatings to make a return on fuel savings. The shipping industry is challenged by macro trends, like the sulphur cap, and pressure from public-facing, multinational companies using ships to transport their cargo that need to make sure they operate sustainably. I am hoping that investment increases in years to come as an anti-fouling coating can be the difference between profit and loss. The devil is in the detail – even a small area fouled on the hull has a huge effect on fuel loss.”
He singles out how the attachment of barnacles to the hull can lead to a 36% increase in drag. “You need to care about underwater before other aspects of the ship,” Mr Chaabane sums up.